Bioinformatics is a field of science that is similar to but distinct from biological computation, while it is often considered synonymous to computational biology. Large-scale experimental methods such as DNA sequencing, which can be considered a revolution in Molecular Biology and genetics, have also led to the science of bioinformatics. Thanks to bioinformatics, it is now possible to process big data produced as a result of a wide range of experiments and understand complex biological processes.
We can say that bioinformatics and genetics are actually inseparable parts of each other. This field covers all aspects of life, while combining statistics and biology. Genetics and bioinformatics are shaping the future in biotechnology, agriculture, herapeutics, and medicine. It both reveals our past to understand the cell world by illuminating biomolecular networks and biological pathways and answers questions about diseases and ecological systems.
Bioinformatics can be briefly summarized as analyzing and understanding genetic information. It can be considered as a combination of information technology, computer science and genetic science. It is possible to use information technologies with the computer use in Bioinformatics in the three-dimensional graphic design of molecules, molecular sequences, three-dimensional molecular structure databases, the production of large amounts of data in a short time, the study of biologically active molecules, analysis of the information obtained from bacteria, yeast, human, animal, plant genome projects, and in the solution of Biological Problems.
The first biological database, the” Protein Identification Resource” was founded by Margaret Dayhoff in 1972. Dayhoff and his friends started by organizing protein families. From here, the idea of comparing protein sequences was born. The first DNA database was established in 1979.
Genome sequencing projects, which are vital genetic data, have become one of today’s bare necessities for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The most important task of bioinformatics is to collect data on the genomes of all biological species, including humans, protein sequences and three-dimensional structures of proteins, metabolic pathway databases, cell lines, and biodiversity information. Bioinformatics plays a crucial role in the successful completion of the human genome project. Bioinformatic methods have now become an indispensable element of biological researches. The main aim of bioinformatics is to understand all the functions associated with a given genome and to improve the quality of life. This is done by data organization, development and implementation of systems.
The main purpose of bioinformatics is to investigate the structures and functions of DNA, RNA and protein sequences, to produce solutions for diseases and genetic disorders, to produce medications that can treat genetic diseases. However, recently, it has also become a field that provides useful information in the field of personalized medicine. A human has a genome containing about 25 thousand genes. These genes contain a lot of data, from the morphological characteristics of a person to what diseases they will suffer from, to how the body reacts to the medications they take. Each person’s genome is personalized. For example, while a type of treatment for a particular disease may be beneficial for one person, it may not have the same result for other patients. Personalized medicine has become an area of increased effectiveness in recent years with advances in the science of genetics and bioinformatics. It can not only provide personalized treatment of diseases but also identify the risks of diseases and take appropriate measures without waiting for the person to become ill. However, in personalized preventive medicine, bioinformatics data is also of great importance to make the right practices in the clinic.
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